Rape Culture in Conflicts: A Heirloom?

Throughout history, sexual violence has been tragically prevalent in armed conflict, and often viewed as an unavoidable consequence of warfare. Its preponderance in armed conflict is dismaying. Sexual violence is a conspicuous phenomenon and a common thread in conflict dating back centuries. They are tangled. And it was tacitly accepted as unavoidable. Conflicts often exacerbate and escalate sexual violence. It is organized. It is endemic. It is barbaric. It is vertigo-inducing. It is a pestilence that bedevils the conflicts for donkey’s years. It is a menace that has that has continued to challenge the conscience of humanity – especially in our times. Sexual violence has been documented in long-simmering armed conflicts including those in Bosnia (former Yugoslavia), Peru, Bangladesh, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Somalia and Syria. Despite widespread international attention and condemnation, sexual violence in armed conflict remains pervasive and the task to root it out has become more onerous and pronged.

While the history of wars and conflicts is replete with massive and systematic incidents of sexual violence against vulnerable girls and women, modern-day wars have witnessed large-scale indiscriminate deployment of rape as a ‘weapon’ of war by warring factions. Both the factions visit unconscionable levels of grisly violations upon civilians. They target civilians in a brainless spiral of violence that only ends up making the lives of civilians much more miserable than it already is.

Sexual violence persists as a devastating phenomenon with damaging and detrimental consequences for victims as well as their families and whole communities. It is not confined to African or European conflicts, or to conflicts in developing or developed nations, but is a Global scourge. Additionally, such violations remain vastly under-reported, and underestimated in terms of prevalence and consequences. The humanitarian response to the diverse needs of victims remains insufficient.

Girls and women are often the targets for sexual violence in armed conflict when rape and other forms of sexual abuse and assault are used as deliberate strategies of war. According to UN Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict, the vast majority of casualties in today’s wars are among civilians, mostly women and children. Sexual violence in conflict situations is as much a terrifying crime as a brutal one, wherever it takes place; it has direct and indirect effects on human lives, leaving deep, indelible scars on the victims as well as society itself. Sexual violence permeates the everyday lives of women in conflict. It is inherently humiliating. It is a quintessential violation of individual autonomy that removes an individual’s control over their body. The humiliation are particularly deep-seated.

Despite the fact that it is so widespread, sexual violence has been vastly under reported and the victims have suffered in silence. Because of the shame and the stigma involved, many victims have chosen to remain mum and the atrocities meted out on them are cloaked in silence. The few that are brave enough to come forward are branded as liars. There are cases of women in various countries, who have been forced to marry their abusers (including soldiers) to save them and their families from shame. Women survivors are ostracized from their families and communities, making them more isolated and vulnerable to further abuse.  Yet of extreme concern, the perpetrators remain at large.

There are many reasons for sexual violence in conflict. Rape committed during conflict is often intended to terrorize civilians and subdue communities. For humiliation. Sometimes it’s used to glean information about rival groups to retaliate or exert power. It can also be used as a perk for soldiers to motivate them and as an inducement to courage on the battlefield. It erodes the fabric of a community in a way that few weapons can. As they say, rape is an incredibly effective- and cheaper weapon. Cheaper than bullets, and more destructive in many cases. Rape, and the threat to use it against women is one of the most potent and systematic tools employed to terrify civilians.

Many women who become pregnant as a consequence of rape may attempt to induce abortion, often at great risk to their own health. Women who conceive as a result of rape may not seek pre- or ante-natal care, and children they deliver are often neglected, abused, stigmatized, ostracized or even killed.

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Let’s collectively condemn the sexual violence. We must stop stigmatizing victims and must make their rights and safety the main priority. Let’s put the blame where it belongs, on the rapist and the cultures that endorse it. Let’s not just fight it, let’s also fight the conniving mendacity that allows cruelty to reign. It is a despicable system that only thrives because people are silent about it. Education alone isn’t enough to stop rape in conflicts. That requires society as a whole to condemn and the international community to act.

The runaway bride.

Batulo is 18 years old divorced and a mother to a 3-year-old son, she was brought up by her grandmother since her parents were so poor to support her and her 11 other siblings. When she was 15 years old her father and her grandmother arranged an early marriage for her to a stranger “I had no say in any decision so I silently cried and accepted my fate, and when I was 6 months pregnant he divorced me; rumors were that he had a habit of predating on young girls; all he wanted was to deflower me and off he went for another vicious circle in another city! He duped my poor grandmother and father into his quagmire, they never saw it coming and he never even paid for the dowry he promised them and my father become a laughing stock” she said with a mischievous smile.

The runaway bride. Batulo Story.

Batulo went back to her grandmother home where she delivered her son and lived for 3 years until her current predicament.

“My uncle summoned me to my grandmother’s chambers and together they informed me that they had a suitor for me, my uncle emphasized that he is a very wealthy man though elderly” she said. Batulo went silent and started fondling with her fingers, she was pondering and from the small wrinkle on her nose she looked disturbed, then she cleared her throat and continued “the story was too familiar and I made a vow to myself: never again! Although I knew my input was of very little consequence. But I had to stand for myself so I looked at both of them in the eyes and said NO!” Her grandmother and uncle were baffled it was a taboo for a girl of her age to stand up to her seniors on such matters “my grandmother threaten me with a mother of all curses and I decided to play my last card and I told them that as per Islamic sharia only my father had the jurisdiction over my marriage, I knew that my father was mostly embarrassed and felt duped in my previous marriage scandal and my bet worked he was on my side and asked my uncle not to go against my wish” she paused and gazed in the horizon and she continued “but my father is a very poor man and his stern decision swayed none and my uncle had already taken 2 camels from my so called suitor and my grandmother said that she was the one who brought me up and they made the decision that I marry the old man as his 4th wife!

The ceremony was expedited and to my dismay guards were hired to make sure I don’t escape” she chocked on her words picked up a napkin and blew her nose cleared her throat and continued “but on the day of the wedding after the nikkah everyone was so busy and I found a window and become a runaway bride, it was a very long journey and I got to my father’s shanty in Mogadishu at midnight, I felt like a free bird and slept like a queen. “However, Batulo’s merriment was short-lived, her uncle had disappeared after taking extra 3 camels as dowry from Batulo’s suitor and now the suitor wants his dowry back or his wife since he claims to have been legally married to her. Batulo says “my mother is now pressuring me to go back and settle down as a 4th wife and my father keeps reminding me that he can’t afford to buy 4 camels or trace my uncle, I am now bewildered and confused but am scared that soon my parents may mortgage me off to this old man, I don’t have any energy left in me to fight and I have just decided to sit and wait for my doom again” Narrates Batulo.

 
 
 
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